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      ev.3
  2. 89
      ev.html
  3. 65
      ev.pod

98
ev.3

@ -719,8 +719,8 @@ for example it might indicate that a fd is readable or writable, and if
your callbacks is well-written it can just attempt the operation and cope
with the error from \fIread()\fR or \fIwrite()\fR. This will not work in multithreaded
programs, though, so beware.
.Sh "\s-1SUMMARY\s0 \s-1OF\s0 \s-1GENERIC\s0 \s-1WATCHER\s0 \s-1FUNCTIONS\s0"
.IX Subsection "SUMMARY OF GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS"
.Sh "\s-1GENERIC\s0 \s-1WATCHER\s0 \s-1FUNCTIONS\s0"
.IX Subsection "GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS"
In the following description, \f(CW\*(C`TYPE\*(C'\fR stands for the watcher type,
e.g. \f(CW\*(C`timer\*(C'\fR for \f(CW\*(C`ev_timer\*(C'\fR watchers and \f(CW\*(C`io\*(C'\fR for \f(CW\*(C`ev_io\*(C'\fR watchers.
.ie n .IP """ev_init"" (ev_TYPE *watcher, callback)" 4
@ -736,7 +736,7 @@ which rolls both calls into one.
You can reinitialise a watcher at any time as long as it has been stopped
(or never started) and there are no pending events outstanding.
.Sp
The callbakc is always of type \f(CW\*(C`void (*)(ev_loop *loop, ev_TYPE *watcher,
The callback is always of type \f(CW\*(C`void (*)(ev_loop *loop, ev_TYPE *watcher,
int revents)\*(C'\fR.
.ie n .IP """ev_TYPE_set"" (ev_TYPE *, [args])" 4
.el .IP "\f(CWev_TYPE_set\fR (ev_TYPE *, [args])" 4
@ -824,14 +824,16 @@ have been omitted....
.IX Header "WATCHER TYPES"
This section describes each watcher in detail, but will not repeat
information given in the last section.
.ie n .Sh """ev_io"" \- is this file descriptor readable or writable"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_io\fP \- is this file descriptor readable or writable"
.IX Subsection "ev_io - is this file descriptor readable or writable"
.ie n .Sh """ev_io"" \- is this file descriptor readable or writable?"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_io\fP \- is this file descriptor readable or writable?"
.IX Subsection "ev_io - is this file descriptor readable or writable?"
I/O watchers check whether a file descriptor is readable or writable
in each iteration of the event loop (This behaviour is called
level-triggering because you keep receiving events as long as the
condition persists. Remember you can stop the watcher if you don't want to
act on the event and neither want to receive future events).
in each iteration of the event loop, or, more precisely, when reading
would not block the process and writing would at least be able to write
some data. This behaviour is called level-triggering because you keep
receiving events as long as the condition persists. Remember you can stop
the watcher if you don't want to act on the event and neither want to
receive future events.
.PP
In general you can register as many read and/or write event watchers per
fd as you want (as long as you don't confuse yourself). Setting all file
@ -841,32 +843,36 @@ required if you know what you are doing).
You have to be careful with dup'ed file descriptors, though. Some backends
(the linux epoll backend is a notable example) cannot handle dup'ed file
descriptors correctly if you register interest in two or more fds pointing
to the same underlying file/socket etc. description (that is, they share
to the same underlying file/socket/etc. description (that is, they share
the same underlying \*(L"file open\*(R").
.PP
If you must do this, then force the use of a known-to-be-good backend
(at the time of this writing, this includes only \f(CW\*(C`EVBACKEND_SELECT\*(C'\fR and
\&\f(CW\*(C`EVBACKEND_POLL\*(C'\fR).
.PP
Another thing you have to watch out for is that it is quite easy to
receive \*(L"spurious\*(R" readyness notifications, that is your callback might
be called with \f(CW\*(C`EV_READ\*(C'\fR but a subsequent \f(CW\*(C`read\*(C'\fR(2) will actually block
because there is no data. Not only are some backends known to create a
lot of those (for example solaris ports), it is very easy to get into
this situation even with a relatively standard program structure. Thus
it is best to always use non-blocking I/O: An extra \f(CW\*(C`read\*(C'\fR(2) returning
\&\f(CW\*(C`EAGAIN\*(C'\fR is far preferable to a program hanging until some data arrives.
.PP
If you cannot run the fd in non-blocking mode (for example you should not
play around with an Xlib connection), then you have to seperately re-test
wether a file descriptor is really ready with a known-to-be good interface
such as poll (fortunately in our Xlib example, Xlib already does this on
its own, so its quite safe to use).
.IP "ev_io_init (ev_io *, callback, int fd, int events)" 4
.IX Item "ev_io_init (ev_io *, callback, int fd, int events)"
.PD 0
.IP "ev_io_set (ev_io *, int fd, int events)" 4
.IX Item "ev_io_set (ev_io *, int fd, int events)"
.PD
Configures an \f(CW\*(C`ev_io\*(C'\fR watcher. The fd is the file descriptor to rceeive
events for and events is either \f(CW\*(C`EV_READ\*(C'\fR, \f(CW\*(C`EV_WRITE\*(C'\fR or \f(CW\*(C`EV_READ |
EV_WRITE\*(C'\fR to receive the given events.
.Sp
Please note that most of the more scalable backend mechanisms (for example
epoll and solaris ports) can result in spurious readyness notifications
for file descriptors, so you practically need to use non-blocking I/O (and
treat callback invocation as hint only), or retest separately with a safe
interface before doing I/O (XLib can do this), or force the use of either
\&\f(CW\*(C`EVBACKEND_SELECT\*(C'\fR or \f(CW\*(C`EVBACKEND_POLL\*(C'\fR, which don't suffer from this
problem. Also note that it is quite easy to have your callback invoked
when the readyness condition is no longer valid even when employing
typical ways of handling events, so its a good idea to use non-blocking
I/O unconditionally.
Configures an \f(CW\*(C`ev_io\*(C'\fR watcher. The \f(CW\*(C`fd\*(C'\fR is the file descriptor to
rceeive events for and events is either \f(CW\*(C`EV_READ\*(C'\fR, \f(CW\*(C`EV_WRITE\*(C'\fR or
\&\f(CW\*(C`EV_READ | EV_WRITE\*(C'\fR to receive the given events.
.PP
Example: call \f(CW\*(C`stdin_readable_cb\*(C'\fR when \s-1STDIN_FILENO\s0 has become, well
readable, but only once. Since it is likely line\-buffered, you could
@ -889,9 +895,9 @@ attempt to read a whole line in the callback:
\& ev_io_start (loop, &stdin_readable);
\& ev_loop (loop, 0);
.Ve
.ie n .Sh """ev_timer"" \- relative and optionally recurring timeouts"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_timer\fP \- relative and optionally recurring timeouts"
.IX Subsection "ev_timer - relative and optionally recurring timeouts"
.ie n .Sh """ev_timer"" \- relative and optionally repeating timeouts"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_timer\fP \- relative and optionally repeating timeouts"
.IX Subsection "ev_timer - relative and optionally repeating timeouts"
Timer watchers are simple relative timers that generate an event after a
given time, and optionally repeating in regular intervals after that.
.PP
@ -988,9 +994,9 @@ inactivity.
\& // reset the timeout to start ticking again at 10 seconds
\& ev_timer_again (&mytimer);
.Ve
.ie n .Sh """ev_periodic"" \- to cron or not to cron"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_periodic\fP \- to cron or not to cron"
.IX Subsection "ev_periodic - to cron or not to cron"
.ie n .Sh """ev_periodic"" \- to cron or not to cron?"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_periodic\fP \- to cron or not to cron?"
.IX Subsection "ev_periodic - to cron or not to cron?"
Periodic watchers are also timers of a kind, but they are very versatile
(and unfortunately a bit complex).
.PP
@ -1134,9 +1140,9 @@ Example: call a callback every hour, starting now:
\& fmod (ev_now (loop), 3600.), 3600., 0);
\& ev_periodic_start (loop, &hourly_tick);
.Ve
.ie n .Sh """ev_signal"" \- signal me when a signal gets signalled"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_signal\fP \- signal me when a signal gets signalled"
.IX Subsection "ev_signal - signal me when a signal gets signalled"
.ie n .Sh """ev_signal"" \- signal me when a signal gets signalled!"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_signal\fP \- signal me when a signal gets signalled!"
.IX Subsection "ev_signal - signal me when a signal gets signalled!"
Signal watchers will trigger an event when the process receives a specific
signal one or more times. Even though signals are very asynchronous, libev
will try it's best to deliver signals synchronously, i.e. as part of the
@ -1156,9 +1162,9 @@ watcher for a signal is stopped libev will reset the signal handler to
.PD
Configures the watcher to trigger on the given signal number (usually one
of the \f(CW\*(C`SIGxxx\*(C'\fR constants).
.ie n .Sh """ev_child"" \- wait for pid status changes"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_child\fP \- wait for pid status changes"
.IX Subsection "ev_child - wait for pid status changes"
.ie n .Sh """ev_child"" \- watch out for process status changes"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_child\fP \- watch out for process status changes"
.IX Subsection "ev_child - watch out for process status changes"
Child watchers trigger when your process receives a \s-1SIGCHLD\s0 in response to
some child status changes (most typically when a child of yours dies).
.IP "ev_child_init (ev_child *, callback, int pid)" 4
@ -1189,9 +1195,9 @@ Example: try to exit cleanly on \s-1SIGINT\s0 and \s-1SIGTERM\s0.
\& ev_signal_init (&signal_watcher, sigint_cb, SIGINT);
\& ev_signal_start (loop, &sigint_cb);
.Ve
.ie n .Sh """ev_idle"" \- when you've got nothing better to do"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_idle\fP \- when you've got nothing better to do"
.IX Subsection "ev_idle - when you've got nothing better to do"
.ie n .Sh """ev_idle"" \- when you've got nothing better to do..."
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_idle\fP \- when you've got nothing better to do..."
.IX Subsection "ev_idle - when you've got nothing better to do..."
Idle watchers trigger events when there are no other events are pending
(prepare, check and other idle watchers do not count). That is, as long
as your process is busy handling sockets or timeouts (or even signals,
@ -1231,9 +1237,9 @@ callback, free it. Alos, use no error checking, as usual.
\& ev_idle_init (idle_watcher, idle_cb);
\& ev_idle_start (loop, idle_cb);
.Ve
.ie n .Sh """ev_prepare""\fP and \f(CW""ev_check"" \- customise your event loop"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_prepare\fP and \f(CWev_check\fP \- customise your event loop"
.IX Subsection "ev_prepare and ev_check - customise your event loop"
.ie n .Sh """ev_prepare""\fP and \f(CW""ev_check"" \- customise your event loop!"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_prepare\fP and \f(CWev_check\fP \- customise your event loop!"
.IX Subsection "ev_prepare and ev_check - customise your event loop!"
Prepare and check watchers are usually (but not always) used in tandem:
prepare watchers get invoked before the process blocks and check watchers
afterwards.
@ -1271,9 +1277,9 @@ parameters of any kind. There are \f(CW\*(C`ev_prepare_set\*(C'\fR and \f(CW\*(C
macros, but using them is utterly, utterly and completely pointless.
.PP
Example: *TODO*.
.ie n .Sh """ev_embed"" \- when one backend isn't enough"
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_embed\fP \- when one backend isn't enough"
.IX Subsection "ev_embed - when one backend isn't enough"
.ie n .Sh """ev_embed"" \- when one backend isn't enough..."
.el .Sh "\f(CWev_embed\fP \- when one backend isn't enough..."
.IX Subsection "ev_embed - when one backend isn't enough..."
This is a rather advanced watcher type that lets you embed one event loop
into another (currently only \f(CW\*(C`ev_io\*(C'\fR events are supported in the embedded
loop, other types of watchers might be handled in a delayed or incorrect

89
ev.html

@ -6,7 +6,7 @@
<meta name="description" content="Pod documentation for libev" />
<meta name="inputfile" content="&lt;standard input&gt;" />
<meta name="outputfile" content="&lt;standard output&gt;" />
<meta name="created" content="Sat Nov 24 11:19:13 2007" />
<meta name="created" content="Sat Nov 24 17:31:33 2007" />
<meta name="generator" content="Pod::Xhtml 1.57" />
<link rel="stylesheet" href="http://res.tst.eu/pod.css"/></head>
<body>
@ -23,19 +23,19 @@
<li><a href="#GLOBAL_FUNCTIONS">GLOBAL FUNCTIONS</a></li>
<li><a href="#FUNCTIONS_CONTROLLING_THE_EVENT_LOOP">FUNCTIONS CONTROLLING THE EVENT LOOP</a></li>
<li><a href="#ANATOMY_OF_A_WATCHER">ANATOMY OF A WATCHER</a>
<ul><li><a href="#SUMMARY_OF_GENERIC_WATCHER_FUNCTIONS">SUMMARY OF GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS</a></li>
<ul><li><a href="#GENERIC_WATCHER_FUNCTIONS">GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS</a></li>
<li><a href="#ASSOCIATING_CUSTOM_DATA_WITH_A_WATCH">ASSOCIATING CUSTOM DATA WITH A WATCHER</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#WATCHER_TYPES">WATCHER TYPES</a>
<ul><li><a href="#code_ev_io_code_is_this_file_descrip"><code>ev_io</code> - is this file descriptor readable or writable</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_timer_code_relative_and_opti"><code>ev_timer</code> - relative and optionally recurring timeouts</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_periodic_code_to_cron_or_not"><code>ev_periodic</code> - to cron or not to cron</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_signal_code_signal_me_when_a"><code>ev_signal</code> - signal me when a signal gets signalled</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_child_code_wait_for_pid_stat"><code>ev_child</code> - wait for pid status changes</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_idle_code_when_you_ve_got_no"><code>ev_idle</code> - when you've got nothing better to do</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_prepare_code_and_code_ev_che"><code>ev_prepare</code> and <code>ev_check</code> - customise your event loop</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_embed_code_when_one_backend_"><code>ev_embed</code> - when one backend isn't enough</a></li>
<ul><li><a href="#code_ev_io_code_is_this_file_descrip"><code>ev_io</code> - is this file descriptor readable or writable?</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_timer_code_relative_and_opti"><code>ev_timer</code> - relative and optionally repeating timeouts</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_periodic_code_to_cron_or_not"><code>ev_periodic</code> - to cron or not to cron?</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_signal_code_signal_me_when_a"><code>ev_signal</code> - signal me when a signal gets signalled!</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_child_code_watch_out_for_pro"><code>ev_child</code> - watch out for process status changes</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_idle_code_when_you_ve_got_no"><code>ev_idle</code> - when you've got nothing better to do...</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_prepare_code_and_code_ev_che"><code>ev_prepare</code> and <code>ev_check</code> - customise your event loop!</a></li>
<li><a href="#code_ev_embed_code_when_one_backend_"><code>ev_embed</code> - when one backend isn't enough...</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#OTHER_FUNCTIONS">OTHER FUNCTIONS</a></li>
@ -515,6 +515,10 @@ running when nothing else is active.</p>
</dd>
</dl>
</div>
<h1 id="ANATOMY_OF_A_WATCHER">ANATOMY OF A WATCHER</h1><p><a href="#TOP" class="toplink">Top</a></p>
<div id="ANATOMY_OF_A_WATCHER_CONTENT">
@ -614,8 +618,8 @@ programs, though, so beware.</p>
</dl>
</div>
<h2 id="SUMMARY_OF_GENERIC_WATCHER_FUNCTIONS">SUMMARY OF GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS</h2>
<div id="SUMMARY_OF_GENERIC_WATCHER_FUNCTIONS-2">
<h2 id="GENERIC_WATCHER_FUNCTIONS">GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS</h2>
<div id="GENERIC_WATCHER_FUNCTIONS_CONTENT">
<p>In the following description, <code>TYPE</code> stands for the watcher type,
e.g. <code>timer</code> for <code>ev_timer</code> watchers and <code>io</code> for <code>ev_io</code> watchers.</p>
<dl>
@ -629,7 +633,7 @@ type-specific parts. For each type there is also a <code>ev_TYPE_init</code> mac
which rolls both calls into one.</p>
<p>You can reinitialise a watcher at any time as long as it has been stopped
(or never started) and there are no pending events outstanding.</p>
<p>The callbakc is always of type <code>void (*)(ev_loop *loop, ev_TYPE *watcher,
<p>The callback is always of type <code>void (*)(ev_loop *loop, ev_TYPE *watcher,
int revents)</code>.</p>
</dd>
<dt><code>ev_TYPE_set</code> (ev_TYPE *, [args])</dt>
@ -736,13 +740,15 @@ information given in the last section.</p>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_io_code_is_this_file_descrip"><code>ev_io</code> - is this file descriptor readable or writable</h2>
<h2 id="code_ev_io_code_is_this_file_descrip"><code>ev_io</code> - is this file descriptor readable or writable?</h2>
<div id="code_ev_io_code_is_this_file_descrip-2">
<p>I/O watchers check whether a file descriptor is readable or writable
in each iteration of the event loop (This behaviour is called
level-triggering because you keep receiving events as long as the
condition persists. Remember you can stop the watcher if you don't want to
act on the event and neither want to receive future events).</p>
in each iteration of the event loop, or, more precisely, when reading
would not block the process and writing would at least be able to write
some data. This behaviour is called level-triggering because you keep
receiving events as long as the condition persists. Remember you can stop
the watcher if you don't want to act on the event and neither want to
receive future events.</p>
<p>In general you can register as many read and/or write event watchers per
fd as you want (as long as you don't confuse yourself). Setting all file
descriptors to non-blocking mode is also usually a good idea (but not
@ -750,28 +756,31 @@ required if you know what you are doing).</p>
<p>You have to be careful with dup'ed file descriptors, though. Some backends
(the linux epoll backend is a notable example) cannot handle dup'ed file
descriptors correctly if you register interest in two or more fds pointing
to the same underlying file/socket etc. description (that is, they share
to the same underlying file/socket/etc. description (that is, they share
the same underlying &quot;file open&quot;).</p>
<p>If you must do this, then force the use of a known-to-be-good backend
(at the time of this writing, this includes only <code>EVBACKEND_SELECT</code> and
<code>EVBACKEND_POLL</code>).</p>
<p>Another thing you have to watch out for is that it is quite easy to
receive &quot;spurious&quot; readyness notifications, that is your callback might
be called with <code>EV_READ</code> but a subsequent <code>read</code>(2) will actually block
because there is no data. Not only are some backends known to create a
lot of those (for example solaris ports), it is very easy to get into
this situation even with a relatively standard program structure. Thus
it is best to always use non-blocking I/O: An extra <code>read</code>(2) returning
<code>EAGAIN</code> is far preferable to a program hanging until some data arrives.</p>
<p>If you cannot run the fd in non-blocking mode (for example you should not
play around with an Xlib connection), then you have to seperately re-test
wether a file descriptor is really ready with a known-to-be good interface
such as poll (fortunately in our Xlib example, Xlib already does this on
its own, so its quite safe to use).</p>
<dl>
<dt>ev_io_init (ev_io *, callback, int fd, int events)</dt>
<dt>ev_io_set (ev_io *, int fd, int events)</dt>
<dd>
<p>Configures an <code>ev_io</code> watcher. The fd is the file descriptor to rceeive
events for and events is either <code>EV_READ</code>, <code>EV_WRITE</code> or <code>EV_READ |
EV_WRITE</code> to receive the given events.</p>
<p>Please note that most of the more scalable backend mechanisms (for example
epoll and solaris ports) can result in spurious readyness notifications
for file descriptors, so you practically need to use non-blocking I/O (and
treat callback invocation as hint only), or retest separately with a safe
interface before doing I/O (XLib can do this), or force the use of either
<code>EVBACKEND_SELECT</code> or <code>EVBACKEND_POLL</code>, which don't suffer from this
problem. Also note that it is quite easy to have your callback invoked
when the readyness condition is no longer valid even when employing
typical ways of handling events, so its a good idea to use non-blocking
I/O unconditionally.</p>
<p>Configures an <code>ev_io</code> watcher. The <code>fd</code> is the file descriptor to
rceeive events for and events is either <code>EV_READ</code>, <code>EV_WRITE</code> or
<code>EV_READ | EV_WRITE</code> to receive the given events.</p>
</dd>
</dl>
<p>Example: call <code>stdin_readable_cb</code> when STDIN_FILENO has become, well
@ -797,7 +806,7 @@ attempt to read a whole line in the callback:</p>
</pre>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_timer_code_relative_and_opti"><code>ev_timer</code> - relative and optionally recurring timeouts</h2>
<h2 id="code_ev_timer_code_relative_and_opti"><code>ev_timer</code> - relative and optionally repeating timeouts</h2>
<div id="code_ev_timer_code_relative_and_opti-2">
<p>Timer watchers are simple relative timers that generate an event after a
given time, and optionally repeating in regular intervals after that.</p>
@ -883,7 +892,7 @@ inactivity.</p>
</pre>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_periodic_code_to_cron_or_not"><code>ev_periodic</code> - to cron or not to cron</h2>
<h2 id="code_ev_periodic_code_to_cron_or_not"><code>ev_periodic</code> - to cron or not to cron?</h2>
<div id="code_ev_periodic_code_to_cron_or_not-2">
<p>Periodic watchers are also timers of a kind, but they are very versatile
(and unfortunately a bit complex).</p>
@ -1012,7 +1021,7 @@ potentially a lot of jittering, but good long-term stability.</p>
</pre>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_signal_code_signal_me_when_a"><code>ev_signal</code> - signal me when a signal gets signalled</h2>
<h2 id="code_ev_signal_code_signal_me_when_a"><code>ev_signal</code> - signal me when a signal gets signalled!</h2>
<div id="code_ev_signal_code_signal_me_when_a-2">
<p>Signal watchers will trigger an event when the process receives a specific
signal one or more times. Even though signals are very asynchronous, libev
@ -1038,8 +1047,8 @@ of the <code>SIGxxx</code> constants).</p>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_child_code_wait_for_pid_stat"><code>ev_child</code> - wait for pid status changes</h2>
<div id="code_ev_child_code_wait_for_pid_stat-2">
<h2 id="code_ev_child_code_watch_out_for_pro"><code>ev_child</code> - watch out for process status changes</h2>
<div id="code_ev_child_code_watch_out_for_pro-2">
<p>Child watchers trigger when your process receives a SIGCHLD in response to
some child status changes (most typically when a child of yours dies).</p>
<dl>
@ -1071,7 +1080,7 @@ process causing the status change.</p>
</pre>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_idle_code_when_you_ve_got_no"><code>ev_idle</code> - when you've got nothing better to do</h2>
<h2 id="code_ev_idle_code_when_you_ve_got_no"><code>ev_idle</code> - when you've got nothing better to do...</h2>
<div id="code_ev_idle_code_when_you_ve_got_no-2">
<p>Idle watchers trigger events when there are no other events are pending
(prepare, check and other idle watchers do not count). That is, as long
@ -1114,7 +1123,7 @@ callback, free it. Alos, use no error checking, as usual.</p>
</pre>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_prepare_code_and_code_ev_che"><code>ev_prepare</code> and <code>ev_check</code> - customise your event loop</h2>
<h2 id="code_ev_prepare_code_and_code_ev_che"><code>ev_prepare</code> and <code>ev_check</code> - customise your event loop!</h2>
<div id="code_ev_prepare_code_and_code_ev_che-2">
<p>Prepare and check watchers are usually (but not always) used in tandem:
prepare watchers get invoked before the process blocks and check watchers
@ -1155,7 +1164,7 @@ macros, but using them is utterly, utterly and completely pointless.</p>
</div>
<h2 id="code_ev_embed_code_when_one_backend_"><code>ev_embed</code> - when one backend isn't enough</h2>
<h2 id="code_ev_embed_code_when_one_backend_"><code>ev_embed</code> - when one backend isn't enough...</h2>
<div id="code_ev_embed_code_when_one_backend_-2">
<p>This is a rather advanced watcher type that lets you embed one event loop
into another (currently only <code>ev_io</code> events are supported in the embedded

65
ev.pod

@ -470,6 +470,7 @@ Example: for some weird reason, unregister the above signal handler again.
=back
=head1 ANATOMY OF A WATCHER
A watcher is a structure that you create and register to record your
@ -578,7 +579,7 @@ programs, though, so beware.
=back
=head2 SUMMARY OF GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS
=head2 GENERIC WATCHER FUNCTIONS
In the following description, C<TYPE> stands for the watcher type,
e.g. C<timer> for C<ev_timer> watchers and C<io> for C<ev_io> watchers.
@ -597,7 +598,7 @@ which rolls both calls into one.
You can reinitialise a watcher at any time as long as it has been stopped
(or never started) and there are no pending events outstanding.
The callbakc is always of type C<void (*)(ev_loop *loop, ev_TYPE *watcher,
The callback is always of type C<void (*)(ev_loop *loop, ev_TYPE *watcher,
int revents)>.
=item C<ev_TYPE_set> (ev_TYPE *, [args])
@ -693,13 +694,15 @@ This section describes each watcher in detail, but will not repeat
information given in the last section.
=head2 C<ev_io> - is this file descriptor readable or writable
=head2 C<ev_io> - is this file descriptor readable or writable?
I/O watchers check whether a file descriptor is readable or writable
in each iteration of the event loop (This behaviour is called
level-triggering because you keep receiving events as long as the
condition persists. Remember you can stop the watcher if you don't want to
act on the event and neither want to receive future events).
in each iteration of the event loop, or, more precisely, when reading
would not block the process and writing would at least be able to write
some data. This behaviour is called level-triggering because you keep
receiving events as long as the condition persists. Remember you can stop
the watcher if you don't want to act on the event and neither want to
receive future events.
In general you can register as many read and/or write event watchers per
fd as you want (as long as you don't confuse yourself). Setting all file
@ -709,33 +712,37 @@ required if you know what you are doing).
You have to be careful with dup'ed file descriptors, though. Some backends
(the linux epoll backend is a notable example) cannot handle dup'ed file
descriptors correctly if you register interest in two or more fds pointing
to the same underlying file/socket etc. description (that is, they share
to the same underlying file/socket/etc. description (that is, they share
the same underlying "file open").
If you must do this, then force the use of a known-to-be-good backend
(at the time of this writing, this includes only C<EVBACKEND_SELECT> and
C<EVBACKEND_POLL>).
Another thing you have to watch out for is that it is quite easy to
receive "spurious" readyness notifications, that is your callback might
be called with C<EV_READ> but a subsequent C<read>(2) will actually block
because there is no data. Not only are some backends known to create a
lot of those (for example solaris ports), it is very easy to get into
this situation even with a relatively standard program structure. Thus
it is best to always use non-blocking I/O: An extra C<read>(2) returning
C<EAGAIN> is far preferable to a program hanging until some data arrives.
If you cannot run the fd in non-blocking mode (for example you should not
play around with an Xlib connection), then you have to seperately re-test
wether a file descriptor is really ready with a known-to-be good interface
such as poll (fortunately in our Xlib example, Xlib already does this on
its own, so its quite safe to use).
=over 4
=item ev_io_init (ev_io *, callback, int fd, int events)
=item ev_io_set (ev_io *, int fd, int events)
Configures an C<ev_io> watcher. The fd is the file descriptor to rceeive
events for and events is either C<EV_READ>, C<EV_WRITE> or C<EV_READ |
EV_WRITE> to receive the given events.
Please note that most of the more scalable backend mechanisms (for example
epoll and solaris ports) can result in spurious readyness notifications
for file descriptors, so you practically need to use non-blocking I/O (and
treat callback invocation as hint only), or retest separately with a safe
interface before doing I/O (XLib can do this), or force the use of either
C<EVBACKEND_SELECT> or C<EVBACKEND_POLL>, which don't suffer from this
problem. Also note that it is quite easy to have your callback invoked
when the readyness condition is no longer valid even when employing
typical ways of handling events, so its a good idea to use non-blocking
I/O unconditionally.
Configures an C<ev_io> watcher. The C<fd> is the file descriptor to
rceeive events for and events is either C<EV_READ>, C<EV_WRITE> or
C<EV_READ | EV_WRITE> to receive the given events.
=back
@ -758,7 +765,7 @@ attempt to read a whole line in the callback:
ev_loop (loop, 0);
=head2 C<ev_timer> - relative and optionally recurring timeouts
=head2 C<ev_timer> - relative and optionally repeating timeouts
Timer watchers are simple relative timers that generate an event after a
given time, and optionally repeating in regular intervals after that.
@ -850,7 +857,7 @@ inactivity.
ev_timer_again (&mytimer);
=head2 C<ev_periodic> - to cron or not to cron
=head2 C<ev_periodic> - to cron or not to cron?
Periodic watchers are also timers of a kind, but they are very versatile
(and unfortunately a bit complex).
@ -988,7 +995,7 @@ Example: call a callback every hour, starting now:
ev_periodic_start (loop, &hourly_tick);
=head2 C<ev_signal> - signal me when a signal gets signalled
=head2 C<ev_signal> - signal me when a signal gets signalled!
Signal watchers will trigger an event when the process receives a specific
signal one or more times. Even though signals are very asynchronous, libev
@ -1014,7 +1021,7 @@ of the C<SIGxxx> constants).
=back
=head2 C<ev_child> - wait for pid status changes
=head2 C<ev_child> - watch out for process status changes
Child watchers trigger when your process receives a SIGCHLD in response to
some child status changes (most typically when a child of yours dies).
@ -1047,7 +1054,7 @@ Example: try to exit cleanly on SIGINT and SIGTERM.
ev_signal_start (loop, &sigint_cb);
=head2 C<ev_idle> - when you've got nothing better to do
=head2 C<ev_idle> - when you've got nothing better to do...
Idle watchers trigger events when there are no other events are pending
(prepare, check and other idle watchers do not count). That is, as long
@ -1091,7 +1098,7 @@ callback, free it. Alos, use no error checking, as usual.
ev_idle_start (loop, idle_cb);
=head2 C<ev_prepare> and C<ev_check> - customise your event loop
=head2 C<ev_prepare> and C<ev_check> - customise your event loop!
Prepare and check watchers are usually (but not always) used in tandem:
prepare watchers get invoked before the process blocks and check watchers
@ -1135,7 +1142,7 @@ macros, but using them is utterly, utterly and completely pointless.
Example: *TODO*.
=head2 C<ev_embed> - when one backend isn't enough
=head2 C<ev_embed> - when one backend isn't enough...
This is a rather advanced watcher type that lets you embed one event loop
into another (currently only C<ev_io> events are supported in the embedded

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