r->gw_dechunk->b is not a candidate for using generic chunk buffers.
chunked headers are generally smaller and fit in default 64 byte alloc.
Also, lighttpd limits chunked header to 1k.
Avoid unneeded optimization since HTTP/1.1 use is likely to diminish
over time in favor of HTTP/2 or HTTP/3 or later.
splice() data from backends to tempfiles (where splice() is available);
reduce copying data to userspace when writing data to tempfiles
Note: splice() on Linux returns EINVAL if target file has O_APPEND set
so lighttpd uses pwrite() (where available) when writing to tempfiles
(instead of lseek() + write(), or O_APPEND and write())
separate internal control for backend max_per_read
When not streaming, large reads will be flushed to temp files on disk.
When streaming, use a smaller buffer to help reduce memory usage.
When not streaming, attempt to read and empty kernel socket bufs.
(e.g. MAX_READ_LIMIT 256k)
When writing to sockets (or pipes) attempt to fill kernel socket bufs.
(e.g. MAX_WRITE_LIMIT 256k)
return HANDLER_FINISHED from http_response_read() if response finished,
whether due to reading EOF (prior behavior), or if Content-Length was
provided and we have finished reading Content-Length, or if a module
sets r->resp_body_finished for any other reason. This may save an
unnecessary poll() and read() to receive EOF when Content-Length has
already been read.
manage r->resp_body_scratchpad in new funcs
which now only decode chunked encoding, more apropos for the func names
Most OS platforms have already provided solutions to
Y2038 32-bit signed time_t 5 - 10 years ago (or more!)
Notable exceptions are Linux i686 and FreeBSD i386.
Since 32-bit systems tend to be embedded systems,
and since many distros take years to pick up new software,
this commit aims to provide Y2038 mitigations for lighttpd
running on 32-bit systems with Y2038-unsafe 32-bit signed time_t
* Y2038: lighttpd 1.4.60 and later report Y2038 safety
$ lighttpd -V
+ Y2038 support # Y2038-SAFE
$ lighttpd -V
- Y2038 support (unsafe 32-bit signed time_t) # Y2038-UNSAFE
* Y2038: general platform info
* Y2038-SAFE: lighttpd 64-bit builds on platforms using 64-bit time_t
- all major 64-bit platforms (known to this author) use 64-bit time_t
* Y2038-SAFE: lighttpd 32-bit builds on platforms using 64-bit time_t
- Linux x32 ABI (different from i686)
- FreeBSD all 32-bit and 64-bit architectures *except* 32-bit i386
- NetBSD 6.0 (released Oct 2012) all 32-bit and 64-bit architectures
- OpenBSD 5.5 (released May 2014) all 32-bit and 64-bit architectures
- Microsoft Windows XP and Visual Studio 2005 (? unsure ?)
Another reference suggests Visual Studio 2015 defaults to 64-bit time_t
- MacOS 10.15 Catalina (released 2019) drops support for 32-bit apps
* Y2038-SAFE: lighttpd 32-bit builds on platforms using 32-bit unsigned time_t
- e.g. OpenVMS (unknown if lighttpd builds on this platform)
* Y2038-UNSAFE: lighttpd 32-bit builds on platforms using 32-bit signed time_t
- Linux 32-bit (including i686)
- glibc 32-bit library support not yet available for 64-bit time_t
- Linux kernel 5.6 on 32-bit platforms does support 64-bit time_t
"Note: at this point, 64-bit time support in dual-time
configurations is work-in-progress, so for these
configurations, the public API only makes the 32-bit time
support available. In a later change, the public API will
allow user code to choose the time size for a given
- compiling with -D_TIME_BITS=64 currently has no effect
- glibc recent (Jul 2021) mailing list discussion
- FreeBSD i386
- DragonFlyBSD 32-bit
* Y2038 mitigations attempted on Y2038-UNSAFE platforms (32-bit signed time_t)
* lighttpd prefers system monotonic clock instead of realtime clock
in places where realtime clock is not required
* lighttpd treats negative time_t values as after 19 Jan 2038 03:14:07 GMT
* (lighttpd presumes that lighttpd will not encounter dates before 1970
during normal operation.)
* lighttpd casts struct stat st.st_mtime (and st.st_*time) through uint64_t
to convert negative timestamps for comparisions with 64-bit timestamps
(treating negative timestamp values as after 19 Jan 2038 03:14:07 GMT)
* lighttpd provides unix_time64_t (int64_t) and
* lighttpd provides struct unix_timespec64 (unix_timespec64_t)
(struct timespec equivalent using unix_time64_t tv_sec member)
* lighttpd provides gmtime64_r() and localtime64_r() wrappers
for platforms 32-bit platforms using 32-bit time_t and
lighttpd temporarily shifts the year in order to use
gmtime_r() and localtime_r() (or gmtime() and localtime())
from standard libraries, before readjusting year and passing
struct tm to formatting functions such as strftime()
* lighttpd provides TIME64_CAST() macro to cast signed 32-bit time_t to
unsigned 32-bit and then to unix_time64_t
* Note: while lighttpd tries handle times past 19 Jan 2038 03:14:07 GMT
on 32-bit platforms using 32-bit signed time_t, underlying libraries and
underlying filesystems might not behave properly after 32-bit signed time_t
overflows (19 Jan 2038 03:14:08 GMT). If a given 32-bit OS does not work
properly using negative time_t values, then lighttpd likely will not work
properly on that system.
* Other references and blogs
This commit is a large set of code changes and results in removal of
hundreds, perhaps thousands, of CPU instructions, a portion of which
are on hot code paths.
Most (buffer *) used by lighttpd are not NULL, especially since buffers
were inlined into numerous larger structs such as request_st and chunk.
In the small number of instances where that is not the case, a NULL
check is often performed earlier in a function where that buffer is
later used with a buffer_* func. In the handful of cases that remained,
a NULL check was added, e.g. with r->http_host and r->conf.server_tag.
- check for empty strings at config time and set value to NULL if blank
string will be ignored at runtime; at runtime, simple pointer check
for NULL can be used to check for a value that has been set and is not
- use buffer_is_blank() instead of buffer_string_is_empty(),
and use buffer_is_unset() instead of buffer_is_empty(),
where buffer is known not to be NULL so that NULL check can be skipped
- use buffer_clen() instead of buffer_string_length() when buffer is
known not to be NULL (to avoid NULL check at runtime)
- use buffer_truncate() instead of buffer_string_set_length() to
truncate string, and use buffer_extend() to extend
Examples where buffer known not to be NULL:
- cpv->v.b from config_plugin_values_init is not NULL if T_CONFIG_BOOL
(though we might set it to NULL if buffer_is_blank(cpv->v.b))
- address of buffer is arg (&foo)
(compiler optimizer detects this in most, but not all, cases)
- buffer is checked for NULL earlier in func
- buffer is accessed in same scope without a NULL check (e.g. b->ptr)
internal behavior change:
callers must not pass a NULL buffer to some funcs.
- buffer_init_buffer() requires non-null args
- buffer_copy_buffer() requires non-null args
- buffer_append_string_buffer() requires non-null args
- buffer_string_space() requires non-null arg
When lighttpd is not configured to stream the response body,
lighttpd sends partial content with an incorrect Content-Length
to an HTTP/1.0 client if a backend sends Transfer-Encoding: chunked
in response to lighttpd HTTP/1.1 request (to backend), and the response
from the backend ends up truncated.
lighttpd could instead send an HTTP/1.0 502 Bad Gateway, but the
current implementation chooses to send the partial content. After all,
an HTTP/1.0 client is, well, HTTP/1.0, and so of limited intelligence.
commit 903024d7 in lighttpd 1.4.57 fixed issue #3046 but in the process
broke HTTP/1.1 101 Switching Protocols which included Content-Length: 0
in the response headers. Content-Length response header is permitted
by the RFCs, but not necessary with HTTP status 101 Switching Protocols.
"websocket proxy fails if 101 Switching Protocols from backend includes Content-Length"
Please note that this would not have crashed "x-sendfile-docroot"
were set to restrict the locations of files that can be sent via
X-Sendfile. If users are untrusted, "x-sendfile" should not be
enable without also configuring "x-sendfile-docroot"
"Server Aborted due to Malicious Data sent through CGI Sendfile"
fix large memory usage for large file downloads from dynamic backends
reuse or release large memory chunks
"Memory Growth with PUT and full buffered streams"
replace /* fall through */ comment with __attribute_fallthrough__ macro
Note: not adding attribute to code with external origins:
so to avoid warnings, may need to compile with -Wno-implicit-fallthrough
use http_chunk_append_file_ref() and http_chunk_append_file_ref_range()
reduce resource usage (number of fds open) by reference counting open
fds to files served, and sharing the fd among FILE_CHUNKs in responses